Documents



  • Shown below are pdf documents & news articles concerning the U-Boats Operations In Asia. ( Click on the pdf icon to view the documents )





  1. Summary of German submarines in Asia , U-Boats in the Far East by David Oearn
  2. A U-Boat Far From Home, Memoir by Dietrich Hille, ex Leutnant U181
  3. Wrack von deutschem Unterseeboot  U168 vor Indonesien gefunden (Die Welt - 21 Nov 2013)
  4. "U168 - Memburu Sang Pemburu" (National Geographic Indonesia - May 2014 edition)
  5. Kölnische Illustrierte Zeitung  (Nummer 43) vom 28.10.1943 
  6. Monsun U-boats in the Indian Ocean and the Far East by Marcin Jedrzejewski
  7. U-Boat Operations in the Indian Ocean and the Far East by Chuck Roberts
  8. UBoat Base, Penang by by Khoo Salma Nasution
  9. Axis Uboats In Far-Eastern Waters by Dr R. Riviera
  10. Die Geschichte des Deutschen Soldatenfriedhofs Arca Domas In Indonesien
  11. News-Artikel über das Wrack der Unterseeboot U859
  12. German U-Boats in the Indian Ocean by Kapitaen sur See Kurt Freiwald
  13. In den Fernen Osten - Lawrence Paterson
  14. The Indonesian Declaration Of Independence typewritten on a Kriegsmarine typewriter
  15. A Pre-WW2 German plane (Arado Ar.79) in Bali, Indonesia 1938
  16. Arados in Ostasien - Ulrich Israel and Detlef Billig ( FliegerRevue Extra ) 
  17. A Pre-WW2 German-Japanese Youth Exchange Badges by Wilhelm P.B.R. Saris
  18. Captain Bernhard Rogge's Samurai Sword @ Maritime Museum Hamburg , Germany
  19. Kollektives Gedächtnis , In Indonesia und Japan 1940/45 - Manfred Müller

E-Books


  • Shown below are E-books concerning the U-Boats Operations In Asia. (Click on the pdf icon to view the Ebooks)
  

1. The Penang submarines : Penang and submarine operations: 1942/45 by Dennis Gunton
The first and only book that was comissioned by the City Council of Georgetown, Penang - Malaysia. It is also the ealiest book written about both Japanese , German & Italian submarines operating in Asia during WW2. This book talks extensively about Penang Island as the primary U-Boat base, which was shared with the Imperial Japanese Navy. The relationship between two different axis navies as well as the fate of every Gruppe Monsun - the operational name given to the German U-Boats are also discussed here along with a handdrawn map that details all the U-Boats that was sunk in Asia and enroute from Europe to Penang.
2. Haie im Paradies. Der deutsche U-Boot-Krieg in Asiens Gewässern 1943/45
The quoted book is the most important literature among printed sources dealing with WW2 monsun u-boats and German Far East bases. Originally it has been prepared by raider crew member named Fritz-Ludwig Dechow but in the end it has been published by Jochen Brennecke. The contents of the book is nearly 100% the same except for some minor mis-spells of names (such as Admiral Wennecker (= wrong) instead of Admiral Wenneker, or Cpt Ehrhardt (= wrong) instead of Cpt Erhardt). Unfortunately it contains a lot of navy "slang" of the '30s and '40s which is even for German language native speakers (young generation) difficult to read and understand nowadays. -- Reviewed by Axel Dörrenbach.
3. Die Abenteuer des letzten Kapers, Hilfskreuzer Thors Reise in die Katastrophe
This out of print book has over 200 pictures that chronicles the history of this german auxiliary cruiser from its journey in Germany all the way to its destruction in Japan. Self published by Heinz Tischer in 1983, this is the definitive illustration book on this cruiser.

Pictures

  • Shown below are historical pictures of the German Kreigsmarine in Asia during WW2.






 
 
Click on the links below to view the pictures.

1. Pre-WW2 German Japanese Collaboration

2. Uboat U511

3. Uboat U861

4. Uboat U178

5. Uboat U181

6. Hilfskreuzer Thor

7. Singapore - Then & Now

8. Penang, Malaysia - Then & Now

9. Deutscher Soldatenfriedhof , German War Memorial @ Tjikopo, Indonesia  

10. Meeting the German veterans

Videos

  • Shown below are videos of German Uboats , Japanese Submarines and German Auxiliary Cruisers that transverse across Asia during WW2


The Monsun U-Boat in The Indian Ocean - 1944


Shown above is an official propaganda movie, probably shown during the " Die Deutsche Wochenschau " which was the news programme of that time , in the cinemas (the news were updated only once a week in those days). The captain's name is definitely misspelled, there is no Cpt Musee. Names that could fit are: Cpt GYSAE - or Cpt MUSENBERG. Both operated in the Indian Ocean. Also note the periscope scene which could only be arranged with professional movie maker's help. Another interesting point would be the sinking ship (at the end of the clip) RADAMES, is actually an allied egyptian transport ship, that was sunk by U-103 , Cpt. Viktor Shutze, on 25/05/1941 off coast of Liberia in The Mid-Atlantic Ocean. -- Reviewed by Axel Dörrenbach



Japanese submarine I-8 ,that visited German Occupied France, June 1943


The Japanese submarine I-8 was a World War II Junsen Type J-3 Imperial Japanese Navy submarine, famous for completing a technology exchange mission to German-occupied France and back to Japan in 1943. Its mission took place under the Axis Powers' Tripartite Pact to provide for an exchange of strategic materials and manufactured goods between Germany, Italy, and Japan. Initially, cargo ships made the exchanges, but when that was no longer possible, submarines were used.The series (I-7 and I-8), based on the KD (Kaidai) type, were the largest Japanese submarines to be completed before World War II

Commanded by Shinji Uchino, I-8 departed Kure harbor on 1 June 1943, together with I-10 and the submarine tender Hie Maru. Their cargo included two of the famed Type 95 oxygen-propelled torpedoes, torpedo tubes, drawings of an automatic trim system, and a new naval reconnaissance plane, the Yokosuka E14Y. A supplementary crew of 48 men, commanded by Sadatoshi Norita, was also packed into the submarine, with the objective of manning a German U-Boat submarine (U-1224, a Type IXC/40 U-boat) and bringing it back to Japan for reverse engineering. On arriving in Singapore nine days later, I-8 also took onboard quinine, tin, and raw rubber before heading for the Japanese base at Penang.

On July 21, I-8 entered the Atlantic, where she encountered fierce storms, but was able to continue to German-occupied France. Getting closer to Europe, on August 20, I-8 rendezvoused with German submarine U-161, commanded by Captain Albrecht Achille. Two German radio technicians were transferred onboard, as well as a FuMB 1 "Metox" 600A radar detector which was installed on the bridge of I-8. As I-8 entered the Bay of Biscay on 29 August, the Germans sent Ju-88s to provide air cover all the way to Brest, France, where she arrived two days later.
The Japanese submarine was welcomed warmly by the Germans. German news agencies announced that "now even Japanese submarines are operating in the Atlantic." Over a period of about a month, parties and visits to Paris and Berlin were organized for the crew.

I-8 left Brest on October 5, with a cargo of German equipment: machine guns, bomb sights, a Daimler-Benz torpedo boat engine, marine chronometers, radars, sonar equipment, anti-aircraft gunsights, electric torpedoes, and penicillin. The submarine also transported Rear Admiral Yokoi, naval attaché to Berlin since 1940; Captain Hosoya, naval attaché to France since December 1939; three German officers; and four radar and hydrophone technicians.

In the South Atlantic, I-8 radioed its position to the Germans, but the message was intercepted by the Allies, prompting an attack by anti-submarine aircraft, which failed. I-8 arrived in Singapore on 5 December, and finally returned to Kure, Japan on 21 December, after a voyage of 30,000 nautical miles (56,000 km).n late 1944, I-8 was converted to carry Kaiten suicide torpedoes. She was lost off Okinawa on 31 March 1945, in an encounter with the American destroyers USS Morrison and USS Stockton.-- Information extracted from Wikipedia


WW2 German Auxiliary Cruiser - Thor





The Thor was one of the few German auxiliary cruisers that did two operations. It began its first combat cruise on June 6th, 1940, under the command of Captain Otto Kaehler. Thor spent 328 days at sea, and sank or captured 12 ships, for a combined tonnage of 96,547, and ending its first operation in Hamburg on 30.04.1941. During this operation, the Thor engaged three British auxiliary cruisers, destroying one of them (Voltaire ) while the other two (Carnarvon Castle and Alcantara ) were badly damaged.

Thor next operational area was the Indian Ocean, and set out on its second cruise on Nov 30th, 1941, under the command of Captain Günther Gumprich. It sank or captured 10 ships during her second cruise, for a total of 58,644 tons, during 328 days of operation.

Thor arrived in Yokohama on 9th October 1942, where she commenced refitting in preparation for a third voyage. However on November 30th, a series of explosions on the supply ship Uckermark destroyed her superstructure, sending a large amount of burning debris onto Thor, which was moored alongside. Both ships were rapidly set ablaze, along with the Nankin/Leuthen and the Japanese freighter Unkai Maru. All four ships were destroyed in the fire, and 12 of Thor's crew were killed. Thor was wrecked beyond repair, and was abandoned. Her captain, KzS Gumprich, later commanded the raider Michel on her second raiding voyage, from which he did not return.



U181 successful operation in the Indian Ocean





In March 1943 , Kpt. Wolfgang Lüth set out for a second patrol off South Africa into the Indian Ocean and in particular the waters around Mauritius. This patrol lasted 205 days (23 March 1943 – 14 October 1943) making it the second longest of the war (The longest combat patrol of World War II was 225 days in length, and this was achieved by Eitel-Friedrich Kentrat as commander of the U-196.) Lüth sank 10 ships totaling 45,331 GRT on this patrol, which turned out to be his last. While on patrol he was promoted to Korvettenkapitän (Corvette Captain) on 1 April 1943, and on 15 April 1943 received news that he had been awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern).



U-181 rendezvoused with the supply ship Charlotte Schliemann east of Mauritius to refuel on 21 June 1943. Also present at the supply point were U-177 under the command of Robert Gysae, U-178 under the command of Wilhelm Dommes, U-196 under the command of Eitel-Friedrich Kentrat, U-197 under the command of Robert Bartels and U-198 under the command of Werner Hartmann. Here the commanders exchanged experiences and discussed the problem of torpedo failures. On 9 August of the same year and still on patrol, Lüth was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten). The 1st to be awarded in the Kriegsmarine and 7th winner of this prestigious award in the Wehrmacht. This is due in recognition of the number of Allied ships he had sunk & his continous success in his current patrol. By the end of this 2nd patrol, U181 under the command of Wolfgang Lüth , had managed to sink 22 Allied ships.



Lüth nominated two crew members of U-181 for the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross after this patrol. The chief engineer Kapitänleutnant Carl-August Landfermann and 2nd Watch Officer Johannes Limbach both received the Knight's Cross for their achievements. When U-181 returned from this patrol Landfermann received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 27 October 1943 from Großadmiral Karl Dönitz, after Lüth had recommended him for the second time. Johannes Limbach received his Knight Cross in Penang, 6 February 1945.



After five years of operational U-boat service, including 15 war-patrols and over 600 days at sea, Lüth handed over command of U181 to Fregattenkapitän Kurt Freiwald on Nov 1943 and took command of 22. Unterseebootsflottille stationed at Gotenhafen in January 1944. This was a training unit for U-boat commanders. In July 1944 he took command of the 1st Department of the Marineschule Mürwik (Naval Academy Mürwik) in Flensburg-Mürwik. He was promoted to Fregattenkapitän (Frigate Captain) on 1 August 1944 and became the commander of the entire Marineschule in September, and advanced in rank to Kapitän zur See (Captain at Sea) on 1 September 1944. Kapitän zur See Wolfgang Lüth, life would end tragically as on the night of 14 May 1945, he was shot in the head by 18 year-old Matrose Mathias Gottlob, a German sentry at the Flensburg-Mürwik Naval Academy, when he failed to respond to the sentry's challenge. Großadmiral Karl Dönitz contacted the British city commander of Flensburg, Colonel Roberts, asking him for a permission to conduct a formal state funeral, which Roberts approved. The last state funeral of the Third Reich was held for Lüth on 16 May 1945 with Adolf Hitler's successor as Head of State, Reichspräsident and Großadmiral Karl Dönitz, delivering the eulogy. Six U-boat commanders, all of them recipients of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, formed the honour guard. To this day, a memorial stone serves to preserve the memory of this outstanding U-boat officer.

U181 now under command of Fregattenkapitän Kurt Freiwald , travelled to South East Asia as part of the Monsun UBoat Gruppe. However when Germany surrendered in May 1945, this uboat was taken over by the Imperial Japan Navy at Singapore Harbour and became the Japanese submarine I501 on 15 July 1945. After the Japanese formal surrender in August 1945 , U181 was scuttled there on 12 Feb, 1946. The crew & captain of U181, Kurt Freiwald, were later intern in Changi Prison by the British and were finally repatriated back to Germany in 1947.


U234 - The Uboat with uranium for Japan.





U-234 was a Type XB U-boat and its first and only mission into enemy territory consisted of the attempted delivery of uranium and other German advanced weapons technology to the Empire of Japan. Its cargo included technical drawings, examples of the newest electric torpedoes, one crated Me 262 jet aircraft, a Henschel Hs 293 glide bomb, and what was listed on the US Unloading Manifest as 560 kg of uranium oxide.

U-234 sailed from Kiel for Kristiansand, Norway in the evening of 25 March 1945, accompanied by escort vessels and three Type XXIII coastal U-boats, arriving in Horten two days later. U-234 spent the next 8 days carrying out trials of her schnorchel, during which she accidentally collided with a Type VIIC U-boat performing similar trials. Damage to both submarines was minor, and despite a diving and fuel oil tank being holed, U-234 was able to complete her trials. U-234 then proceed to Kristiansand, arriving on about 5 April, where she underwent repairs and topped off her provisions and fuel.

U-234 departed Kristiansand for Japan on 15 April, 1945, running submerged at schnorchel depth for the first 16 days, and surfacing after that only because her commander Kapitänleutnant Johann-Heinrich Fehler considered he was safe from attack on the surface in the prevailing severe storm. From then on, she spent two hours running on the surface by night, and the remainder of the time submerged. The voyage proceeded without incident, and the first sign that world affairs were overtaking the voyage was when the German Navy's Goliath transmitter stopped transmitting, followed shortly after by the Nauen station; Fehler did not know it, but Germany's naval HQ had fallen into Allied hands.

Then, on 4 May, U-234 received a fragment of a broadcast from British and American radio stations announcing that Admiral Karl Dönitz had become Germany's head of state following the death of Adolf Hitler. U-234 finally surfaced on 10 May in the interests of better radio reception and received Dönitz's last order to the submarine force, ordering all U-boats to surface, hoist black flags, and surrender to Allied forces. Fehler suspected a trick and managed to contact another U-boat (U-873), whose captain convinced him that the message was authentic.

At this point, Fehler was practically equidistant from British, Canadian and American ports. He decided not to continue his journey, and instead headed for the east coast of the United States. Fehler thought it likely that if they surrendered to Canadian or British forces, they would be imprisoned and it could be years before they were returned to Germany, and believed that the US, on the other hand, would probably just send them home.

Fehler consequently decided that he would surrender to US forces, but radioed on 12 May that he intended to sail to Halifax, Nova Scotia to surrender to ensure Canadian units would not reach him first. U-234 then set course for Newport News, Virginia, Fehler taking care to dispose of his Tunis radar detector, the new Kurier radio communication system, and all Enigma related documents and other classified papers. On learning that the U-boat was to surrender, the two Japanese passengers committed suicide by taking an overdose of Luminal (a barbiturate sleeping pill). They were buried at sea.

The difference between Fehler's reported course to Halifax and his true course was soon realized by US authorities who dispatched two destroyers to intercept U-234. On 14 May 1945 she was encountered south of the Grand Banks by the USS Sutton. Members of the Sutton's crew took command of the U-boat and sailed her to the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, where the U-805, U-873, and U-1228 had already surrendered.

News of the U-234's surrender with her high-ranking German passengers made the event a major news event. Reporters swarmed over the Navy Yard and went to sea in a small boat for a look at the submarine. The fact that she had a half ton of uranium oxide on board was covered up and remained classified for the duration of the Cold War; a classified US intelligence summary of 19 May merely listed U-234's cargo as including "a/c [aircraft], drawings, arms, medical supplies, instruments, lead, mercury, caffeine, steels, optical glass and brass." The uranium subsequently disappeared, most likely finding its way to the Manhattan Project's Oak Ridge diffusion plant; it has been calculated that it would have yielded approximately 7.7 pounds (3.5 kg) of U-235 after processing, around 20% of what would have been required to arm a contemporary fission weapon.



U864 - A uboat that was sunk before reaching the Far East.


According to decrypted intercepts of German naval communications with Japan, U-864's mission was to transport military equipment to Japan destined for the Japanese military industry, including approximately 67 tons of metallic mercury in 1,857 32 kg steel flasks stored in her keel. Approximately 1,500 tons of mercury was purchased by the Japanese from Italy between 1942 and Italy's surrender in September 1943. This had the highest priority for submarine shipment to Japan and was used in the manufacture of explosives, especially primers.U-864 also carried parts and engineering drawings for German fighter aircraft and other military supplies for Japan, while among her passengers were Messerschmitt engineers Rolf von Chlingensperg and Riclef Schomerus, Japanese torpedo expert Tadao Yamoto, and Japanese fuel expert Toshio Nakai.

U-864, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ralf-Reimar Wolfram, left Kiel on 5 December 1944, arriving at Horten, Norway four days later. Before leaving Germany, U-864 had been refitted with a snorkel mast. Several messages found in the ULTRA archives show that there were problems with the snorkel, which needed repairs before the U-864 put to sea for her voyage to Japan. All Schnorkel trials and training were conducted at Horten near Oslo. U-864 would have needed to be certified ready to sail at Horten before proceeding to Bergen.

While en route to Bergen, U-864 ran aground and had to stop in Farsund for repairs, not arriving in Bergen until 5 January 1945. While docked in the Bruno U-boat pens, U-864 received minor damage on 12 January when the pens and shipping in the harbour were attacked by 32 Royal Air Force Lancaster bombers and one Mosquito bomber of Numbers 9 and 617 Squadrons. At least one Tallboy bomb penetrated the roof of the bunker causing severe damage inside, and left one of the seven pens unusable for the remainder of the war.

Meanwhile, repairs and adjustments to her snorkel had been completed, and U-864 had commenced submerged trials. British submarine HMS Venturer, commanded by Lieutenant James "Jimmy" S. Launders, was sent on her eleventh patrol from the British submarine base at Lerwick in the Shetland Islands to Fedje, north of Bergen. After German radio transmissions regarding U-864 were decrypted, she was rerouted to intercept the U-boat. On 6 February U-864 passed the Fedje area without being detected, but one of her engines began to misfire and she was ordered to return to Bergen. A signal stated that a new escort would be provided her at Hellisøy on 10 February. She made for there, but on 9 February Venturer heard U-864's engine noise (Launders had decided not to use ASDIC since it would betray his position) and spotted the U-boat's periscope.

In an unusually long engagement for a submarine and in a situation for which neither crew had been trained, Launders waited 45 minutes after first contact before going to action stations, waiting in vain for U-864 to surface and thus present an easier target. Upon realizing they were being followed by the British submarine and that their escort had still not arrived, U-864 zig-zagged in attempted evasive manoeuvres and each submarine risked raising her periscope. Venturer had only eight torpedoes (four tubes and four reloads) as opposed to U-864's total of 22, and so after three hours Launders decided to make a prediction of his opponent's zig-zag, and release a spread of his torpedoes into its predicted course. The first torpedo was released at 12:12 and then at 17 second intervals after that (taking four minutes to reach their target), and Launders then dived suddenly to evade any retaliation from his opponent. U-864 heard the torpedoes coming and also dived deeper and turned away to avoid them, managing to avoid the first three but unknowingly steering into the path of the fourth. Imploding, she split in two, sinking with all hands and coming to rest more than 150 m (500 ft) below the surface on the sea floor, 2 nmi (3.7 km; 2.3 mi) west of the island of Fedje, Norway.




Pre - WW2 German & Japanese Collaboration




Shown in this video are Pre WW2 German & Japanese collaboration which shows General Tomoyuki Yamashita visit to Berlin meeting Adolf Hitler and meetings between Japanese Foreign Minister Yōsuke Matsuoka. 
During the late 1930s, though motivated by political and propaganda reasons, several cultural exchanges between Japan and Germany took place. A focus was put on youth exchanges, and numerous mutual visits were conducted; for instance, in late 1938, the ship Gneisenau carried a delegation of 30 members of the Hitlerjugend to Tokyo for a study visit. With Nazi Germany not only having conquered most of continental Europe including France, but also maintaining the impression of a Britain facing imminent defeat,Tokyo interpreted the situation in Europe as proof of a fundamental and fatal weakness in western democracies. Japan's leadership concluded that the current state of affairs had to be exploited and subsequently started to seek even closer cooperation with Berlin. Hitler, for his part, not only feared a lasting stalemate with Britain, but also had started planning an invasion of the Soviet Union. These circumstances, together with a shortage in raw materials and food, increased Berlin's interest in a stronger alliance with Japan. German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop was sent to negotiate a new treaty with Japan, whose relationships with Germany and Italy, the three soon to be called "Axis powers", were cemented with the Tripartite Pact of 27 September 1940.
After the signing of the Tripartite Pact, mutual visits of political and military nature increased. After German ace and parachute expert Ernst Udet visited Japan in 1939 to inspect the Japanese aerial forces, reporting to Hermann Göring that "Japanese flyers, though brave and willing, are no sky-beaters", General Tomoyuki Yamashita was given the job of reorganizing the Japanese Air Arm in late 1940. For this purpose, Yamashita arrived in Berlin in January 1941, staying almost six months. He inspected the broken Maginot Line and German fortifications on the French coast, watched German flyers in training, and even flew in a raid over Britain after decorating Hermann Göring, head of the German Luftwaffe, with the Japanese "Grand Cordon of the Rising Sun". General Yamashita also met and talked with Hitler, on whom he commented,

"I felt, that in the mind of Hitler there was much of spiritual matters, transcending material plans. When I met the Führer he said that since boyhood he had been attracted by Japan. He read carefully reports of Japan's victory over Russia when he was only 17 years old and was impressed by Japan's astonishing strength."
According to Yamashita, Hitler promised to remember Japan in his will, by instructing the Germans "to bind themselves eternally to the Japanese spirit." In fact, General Yamashita was so excited that he said: "In a short time, something great will happen. You just watch and wait." Returning home, the Japanese delegation was accompanied by more than 250 German technicians, engineers and instructors. Soon, Japan's Air Force was among the most powerful in the world.
On 11 November 1940, German–Japanese relations, as well as Japan's plans to expand southwards into South-East Asia, were decisively bolstered when the crew of the German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis boarded the British cargo ship SS Automedon. Fifteen bags of Top Secret mail for the British Far East Command were found, including naval intelligence reports containing the latest assessment of the Japanese Empire's military strength in the Far East, along with details of Royal Air Force units, naval strength, and notes on Singapore's defences. It painted a gloomy picture of British land and naval capabilities in the Far East, and declared that Britain was too weak to risk war with Japan. The mail reached the German embassy in Tokyo on 5 December, and was then hand-carried to Berlin via the Trans-Siberian railway. A copy was given to the Japanese; it provided valuable intelligence prior to their commencing hostilities against the Western Powers. The captain of the Atlantis, Bernhard Rogge, was rewarded for this with an ornate katana Samurai sword; the only other Germans so honored were Hermann Göring and Field Marshal Erwin Rommel.

Reference


  • For a bibliography of reference books that I used, see the list below.

In English Language
  1. The Penang submarines : Penang and submarine operations: 1942-45 by Dennis Gunton
  2. U-Boat Ace: The Story of Wolfgang Luth by Jordan Vause
  3. Reluctant Allies: German-Japanese Naval Relations in World War II. by Yoichi Hirama, Berthold J. Sander-Nagashima, Axel Niestle, Hans-Joachim Krug
  4. U-Boat Far from Home: The Epic Voyage of U 862 to Australia and New Zealand by Stevens, David. St Leonards, NSW: Allen and Unwin, 1997
  5. Shooting the War, The Memoir and Photographs of a U-Boat Officer in World War II, by Otto Giese and James E. Wise. Jr.
  6. Hitler's Grey Wolves - U-Boats in the Indian Ocean by Lawrence Paterson
  7. The Nazi: Coming of Age in Hitler's Germany and the Voyage of the U-859 by Arthur Baudzus
  8. Yanagi: The Secret Underwater Trade between Germany and Japan 1942-1945 by Dr Mark Felton
  9. Germany's Last Mission to Japan by Joseph Scalia
  10. A Submariners' War: The Indian Ocean, 1939-45. by Michael Wilson
  11. Battleground Atlantic by Richard N. Billings, NAL Caliber, 2006 – details on Japanese submarine I-52
  12. U-Boats of the Second World War - Their Longest Voyages  -- Jak P. Mallmann-Showell
  13. Code Name Caesar - The Secret Hunt for U-Boat U864 During WW II -- Jerome Preisler & Keneth Sewell
  14. Stalin's Silver: The Sinking of the U.S.S. John Barry by U-Boat U859 -- John Beasant
     

In German Language
  1. Egbert Thomer : Unter Nippons Sonne – U843
  2. Brennecke, J.: Haie im Paradies. Der deutsche U-Boot-Krieg 1943/45 in Asiens Gewässern, 3. Auflage, Sonderausgabe, Hamburg 2002.
  3. Tischer, H.: Die Abenteuer des letzten Kapers. Hilfskreuzer Thors Reise in die Katastrophe, Großhansdorf 1983.
  4. Klaus Willmann: Das Boot U188 – Zeitzeugenbericht aus dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, Rosenheimer Verlagshaus GmbH & Co.2008
  5. Eberhard Rössler, Bernard & Graerfe Verlag 2003: - Die deutschen U-Kreuzer und Transport-U-Boote

In Italian Language
  1. Sommergibili a Singapore: 1943, l'odissea di un marinaio friulano by Achille Rastelli, Mursia 2006 – Odyssey of an Italian sailor on Italian submarine UIT-23

In Japanese Language
  1. Ishikawa, M.: Yokohama-kô Doitsu gunkan moyu. Sangeki kara yûjô e, 50-nen-me no shinjitsu, Tôkyô 1995.
  2. "Shinkai no Shisha" (Undersea Messengers) by Yoshimura Akira (several issues). Contains plenty of material on German subs visits to Penang.
  3. "Nihon Sensuikan Senshi" (Battle History of Japanese Submarines) by Kimata Jirô, Tosho Shuppansha 1993. It has two detailed chapters on uboats in Asia.

  • For reference websites, see the list below.  

In English Language
  1. http://www.ubootwaffe.net/
  2. http://www.uboat.net/
  3. http://www.uboataces.com/
  4. http://www.uboatarchive.net/ 

In German Language
  1. Ritterkreuzträger - Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes , http://www.das-ritterkreuz.de/
  2. Deutsches U-Boot-Museum , http://www.dubm.de/home.html
  3. U-Boot Ehrenmal Möltenort , http://www.ubootehrenmal.de
  4. Chronik  des Seekrieges  1939-1945 , http://www.wlb-stuttgart.de/seekrieg/chronik.htm
  5. Deutschen U-Boote des II-Weltkrieges , http://www.kbismarck.com/u-boot/index.html 
  6. Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge , http://www.volksbund.de
  7. Die Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) , http://www.d-d-wast.de

In Spanish Language
  1. http://www.u-historia.com/    

  • Links 
 The OVMS Show of Shows - Militaria fair & exhibition












The MAX Show - Militaria fair & exhibition